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Iron

  • Iron is an essential mineral critical for motor and cognitive development.
  • Populations inthe developing countries, premenopausal females, pregnant women, children, vegetarians and frequent blood donors are largely affected by iron deficiency due to low dietary intake, Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the consequences of iron deficiency.
  • Low hemoglobin concentration (anemia) affects 43% of children 5 years of age and 38% of pregnant women globally.
  • Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency and cause of anemia worldwide.
  • Anemia during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal and perinatal mortality and low birth weight. Maternal and neonatal deaths are a major cause of mortality, together causing between 2.5 million and 3.4 million deaths worldwide
  • WHO recommends iron and folic acid supplements for reducing anemia and improving iron status among women of reproductive age.
  • Flour fortification with iron and folic acid is globally recognized as one of the most effective and low-cost micronutrient interventions.
  • Both iron deficiency (ID) and obesity are global epidemics affecting billions of people
  • It has become clear that iron deficiency and obesity do not merely represent the coincidence of two frequent conditions but are molecularly linked and mutually affect each other.
  • The   mechanism explaining the relationship between iron status and obesity remains unclear; this may be due to lower iron  intakes  and/or  increased  iron  requirements  in overweight  individuals.  In  addition,  the  chronic inflammation   and   increased   leptin   production characteristic     of     obesity     increase     hepcidin secretion   from   the   liver,   which,   along   with hepcidin produced by adipose tissue, could reduce dietary  iron  absorption.
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