Iron is an essential mineral critical for motor and cognitive development.
Populations inthe developing countries, premenopausal females, pregnant women, children, vegetarians and frequent blood donors are largely affected by iron deficiency due to low dietary intake, Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the consequences of iron deficiency.
Low hemoglobin concentration (anemia) affects 43% of children 5 years of age and 38% of pregnant women globally.
Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency and cause of anemia worldwide.
Anemia during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal and perinatal mortality and low birth weight. Maternal and neonatal deaths are a major cause of mortality, together causing between 2.5 million and 3.4 million deaths worldwide
WHO recommends iron and folic acid supplements for reducing anemia and improving iron status among women of reproductive age.
Flour fortification with iron and folic acid is globally recognized as one of the most effective and low-cost micronutrient interventions.
Both iron deficiency (ID) and obesity are global epidemics affecting billions of people
It has become clear that iron deficiency and obesity do not merely represent the coincidence of two frequent conditions but are molecularly linked and mutually affect each other.
The mechanism explaining the relationship between iron status and obesity remains unclear; this may be due to lower iron intakes and/or increased iron requirements in overweight individuals. In addition, the chronic inflammation and increased leptin production characteristic of obesity increase hepcidin secretion from the liver, which, along with hepcidin produced by adipose tissue, could reduce dietary iron absorption.