Vitamin A

  • Vitamin A is necessary to support healthy eyesight and immune system functions; children who are deficient face an increased risk of blindness and death from infections such as measles and diarrhea.
  • Vitamin A is known to actively participate in the adipocyte metabolism.
  • One of its metabolites, all-trans retinoic acid, has been known to stimulate lipolysis by activating the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor delta and retinoic acid receptor. Retinoic acid has been found in vitro to decrease preadipocyte survival time and to inhibit or promote adipose cell differentiation.
  • In addition, retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit the expression of leptin, resistin and uncoupling proteins (UCP) in mice and human cell culture tissues
  • Vitamin A concentrations were associated with high concentrations of leptin, and the same was observed in women that had low BMI, low body fat percent and low waist circumference.
  • Vitamin A and its metabolites have different effects on leptin expression among individuals that differ in adipose tissue and total body fat content.
  • Globally, 1 in 3 pre-school aged children and 1 in 6 pregnant women are vitamin A deficient due to inadequate dietary intake.
  • Vitamin A supplementation of children 6-59 months has been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality from all causes in countries where vitamin A deficiency is a public health concern.