- Low vitamin C concentrations were associated with higher BMI and higher waist-to-height ratio.
- There is an inverse relationship between vitamin C and BMI and waist circumference in adults.
- Lower vitamin C concentrations were found to be associated with higher leptin concentrations. It has been observed that vitamin C dose-dependently inhibits leptin secretion in primary rat adipocytes.
- Vitamin C supplementation reduces the gene expression of apelin, an adipokine associated with insulin resistance, obesity and increased inflammation in animal models.
- Higher concentrations of apelin are related to high concentrations of leptin and proinflammatory cytokines.
- Vitamin C has been shown to modify the response from rat adipocytes to high glucose levels, and to modulate the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, protecting the adipocyte from a high glucose environment and from the inflammatory response associated with obesity.